Issues in User Acceptance and Human/Machine Performance: Lessons learned from fielding Intelligent, Adaptive Information Systems
Applying sophisticated, adaptive and intelligent “information presentation automation” to manage information flow to human consumers in complex systems and domains is not a panacea. Our experience includes the design of adaptive automation and information systems for multiple 'high end' domains including fighter piloting (Pilot's Associate--PA), attack/scout helicopter piloting (Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate--RPA), petrochemical refining and communications resource management for military command and control. Users in such domains are very demanding and critical of automation which does not behave according to their standards and expectations, and it has proven difficult to create systems which are correct enough to achieve user acceptance. Yet, we have found that intelligent interfaces and behaviors can be designed so that perfection is not required, but that value is still provided. Such interfaces require detailed consideration and design of the human-automation relationship. A critical mistake is attempting to make the system too autonomous in its behaviors. Instead, the opportunity for explicit and dynamic collaboration about how the system may best serve the human is critical.